Are there jobs for de-buggers and tweakers of front-end work?

I’m a film editor. Film editors don’t create, they complete the work of creatives, making multiple technical and aesthetic judgments as they do so. They fix things that don’t work and augment things that do. So what I’m basically asking is: Are there jobs out there in the field for “code editors”? Or maybe a better analogy would be “code doctors” (like script doctors who fix other writers’ screenplays)?

Nope, code is a more… personal thing than film so it’s far easier for the person who created it to debug and tweak accordingly, the creator already has a mental model of everything that’s going on and if something goes wrong, he’s the best person in the world to guess what happened (if he understands the technologies he’s using). Anyone who gets into his project will have to take the time to read the whole codebase, figure it out how everything works and only then attempt to fix things, it’s not impossible but takes more effort.
You can go on github and look for freecodecamp, take a look at their codebase and imagine that you have to debug the rendering process of a specific exercise, you’re gonna have a few hours in your hand only getting used to the code base and the patterns within it, but someone who’s been in the project and already knows how everything works will have a rough idea of where to focus their attention.

As a programmer you work based on small chunks of tasks, if we’re making a website we’ll need someone to deal with the database connections for the login request page, one person will do that and most people won’t even look at that code as long as it works as it should. Each person in a project will have similar small tasks they’re responsible for.

TL;DR: no

Excerpt from BDD in Action by John Ferguson Smart:

In many organizations, the developers who worked on the initial project don’t maintain the application once it goes into production. Instead, the task is handed over to a maintenance or BAU (Business as Usual) team.

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Also, if you take over a post from someone who’s recently departed the company, there’s a high likelihood you’re going to be maintaining their code.

I do believe his question regards a common development cycle.
If you finish a product and someone else maintains it, you’re outside of the development cycle outsourcing the maintenance of your product. The same happens if you join a company and have to maintain someone else’s code, you’re still just a programmer, not a debugger.
It’s not realistic to expect a third party to debug your code (while you’re still programming), nor is there a “debugger” position in companies that i know of, the closest position to that would be a tester, someone who runs a batch of tests in a black-box manner and reports what they find, if something is wrong, the report is given to the programmer team who will then debug the errors.

Sounds like you are looking for something similar to test automation. Read under the sub-heading “Graphical User Interface( GUI ) testing”. Small and medium sized companies have manual testers that review the consumer facing portion of a web application or website and test the functionality is correct. Normally if the test fails you send it back to the development team.
development team --> QA --> pass --> app goes to production :thumbsup:
back to dev team <---------------fail :-1:

Something else similar is A/B Testing. Your initial changes to make a site more attractive would be driven by your creativity. Your results would be based on market analyst.
A/B testing you would get to make multiple aesthetic judgments. With QA testing you are more part of the process of judging technical decisions of the UI or dev team.