I want to know how to choose a good color scheme for a website, as well as how to know what fonts, effects are good, etc., and which aren’t?
Characterize Your Site’s Purpose and Strategy. Research the Latest Web Design Trends. Pick Your Platform. Select a Template/Theme. Settle on Your Branding. Include and Optimize Your Content. Distribute Your Website. Investigate and Improve.
You may want to study the following articles from smashing magazine:
A Simple Web Developer’s Color Guide
Typographic Design Patterns And Best Practices
A Reference Guide For Typography In Mobile Web Design
Also, I could recommend a delightful book about typography, which is written by Jason Santa Maria named On Web Typography.
And my last recommendation is an online course from lynda.com, which is called typography for web designers. This one might be seen outdated, but the things that instructor teaching is a great foundation.