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Tribute Page for Nelson Rolihlahla Mandela

Nelson Rolihlahla Mandela

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Nelson Mandela 1994.jpg

Mandela in 1994
By © copyright John Mathew Smith 2001

The life of a Hero

  • 1918: Childhood - Mandela was born on 18 July 1918 in the village of Mvezo in Umtata.
  • 1934–1940: Clarkebury, Healdtown, and Fort Hare - Mandela pursued secondary education at Clarkebury Methodist High School, shedding his initial aloofness, forming close friendships, engaging in sports, and developing a passion for gardening. Later, at Healdtown Methodist college, he explored his interest in African culture, excelling in sports, and serving as a prefect. In 1939, with Jongintaba's support, Mandela began a BA degree at the University of Fort Hare, where he studied various subjects, formed lasting friendships, and engaged in extracurricular activities. However, a suspension following a boycott over food quality led to Mandela never completing his degree.
  • 1941–1943: Arriving in Johannesburg - In December 1940, Mandela, dismayed by arranged marriages, fled to Johannesburg with Justice, working briefly as a night watchman before securing a clerk job through ANC activist Walter Sisulu. While attending Communist Party gatherings, he befriended individuals like Gaur Radebe and Nat Bregman. Despite facing poverty, Mandela pursued higher education through a correspondence course. Living in various places, including Alexandra township and a compound with miners, he continued his political path, diverging from a potential role in Thembuland after passing his BA exams in 1943.
  • 1943–1949: Law studies and the ANC Youth League - Mandela, facing racism as the only black African student at the University of the Witwatersrand, became increasingly politicized during his studies, joining the ANC and aligning with Anton Lembede's Africanist views, leading to the founding of the African National Congress Youth League in 1944.
  • 1950–1954: Defiance Campaign and Transvaal ANC Presidency - In the early 1950s, Mandela initially opposed multi-racial activism against apartheid but later embraced a multi-racial front influenced by the Soviet Union's support for national liberation wars. He shifted from rejecting communism to adopting Marxist philosophy and began working at a law firm owned by a communist. Mandela played a prominent role in the ANC's Defiance Campaign, resulting in his arrest and establishing him as a well-known political figure. Despite legal challenges and a ban, he pursued a legal career, co-founding the first African-run law firm in Johannesburg. Mandela's personal life became strained, marked by accusations of adultery and his wife's conversion to Jehovah's Witnesses.
  • 1955–1961: Congress of the People and the Treason Trial - After the unsuccessful Sophiatown protest in February 1955, Mandela believed violent action was necessary to end apartheid, leading to the ANC's plan for a post-apartheid era with the adoption of the Freedom Charter in June 1955. Mandela faced personal challenges, including a divorce, while being arrested in December 1956 for "high treason," with the Treason Trial lasting until August 1961. Inspired by Fidel Castro, Mandela co-founded Umkhonto we Sizwe in 1961, aiming for sabotage as a means of pressuring the government with minimal casualties. He then embarked on an African tour in 1962, receiving support for the anti-apartheid cause and undergoing guerrilla warfare training in Ethiopia before being recalled to South Africa by the ANC's leadership.
  • 1961–1962: MK, the SACP, and African tour -Disguised as a chauffeur, Mandela organized the ANC's new cell structure and a mass stay-at-home strike, earning the nickname "Black Pimpernel"; subsequently, he co-founded Umkhonto we Sizwe in 1961, adopting sabotage as a strategy to pressure the government with minimal casualties, and later embarked on a secret international tour, garnering support for the anti-apartheid cause.
  • Imprisonment

  • 1962–1964 - Arrest and Rivonia trial - In 1962, Nelson Mandela was arrested, allegedly due to a tip-off from the CIA, leading to his imprisonment and subsequent trial on charges of inciting strikes and leaving the country without permission. Representing himself, Mandela used the trial to emphasize the ANC's moral stance against racism. In 1964, following a raid on Liliesleaf Farm, Mandela and his comrades faced the Rivonia Trial, where they admitted to sabotage but denied planning guerrilla warfare. Mandela's "I Am Prepared to Die" speech during the trial gained global attention, and despite calls for the death penalty, he, along with two others, was sentenced to life imprisonment on June 12, 1964.
  • 1964–1982: Robben Island - Imprisoned on Robben Island from 1964 to 1982, Nelson Mandela endured harsh conditions, including forced labor in a lime quarry, solitary confinement, and restrictions on communication and study. Despite facing physical and mental abuse, Mandela engaged in political activities within the prison, initiated educational programs, and experienced improved conditions over time, eventually achieving Class A prisoner status in 1975, allowing increased visits and correspondence.
  • End of apartheid

  • 1990–1991: Early negotiations - Mandela embarked on an international tour, engaging with leaders worldwide to garner support for sanctions against the apartheid government, while simultaneously leading ANC's negotiations with the Afrikaner government, resulting in the Groot Schuur Minute. Despite facing criticism for proposing a ceasefire, he aimed to unify the ANC, eventually being elected as its president in 1991, yet faced personal challenges, including his separation from Winnie Mandela and the escalation of "black-on-black" violence in South Africa.
  • 1991–1992: CODESA talks - During the CODESA negotiations, Mandela condemned de Klerk as the head of an illegitimate regime, and despite later resuming negotiations, the process faced challenges, including a large strike and ANC concessions, leading to a multiracial election and the establishment of a coalition government.
  • 1994–1999: Presidency of South Africa - The newly elected National Assembly formally elected Nelson Mandela as South Africa's first black chief executive in May 1994, overseeing a Government of National Unity that included representatives from the ANC, National Party, and Inkatha. Mandela, facing health issues at 76, lived modestly, donated a third of his income to charity, and published his autobiography "Long Walk to Freedom" in December 1994, while also entering into a relationship with Graça Machel in 1995.
  • 2013: Death -After a series of hospitalizations for respiratory and lung infections, Nelson Mandela, aged 95, passed away at his home in Houghton on December 5, 2013, surrounded by his family. His death prompted a period of national mourning, a memorial service, and a state funeral in Qunu, where he was buried.
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Hi LSGLP,
You need to add these propreties into the image selector of your css.

Note that you need to have two different CSS selectors here: img (the element) and #image (the id). Make sure you have the correct properties for each selector instead of piling them all into one.

(It’s hard to say exactly what’s happening without being able to see your CSS and HTML code, but that’s my first guess!)

2 Likes

Hi m-stanleysk

I managed to see the problem, thank you. :grinning:

Hi deventhusiast

Sorted, thanks. :grinning:

Hi @LSGLP

Try removing the comma after the selector name.

Happy coding