When I apply a specific class, the section disappears and I don't know why

I have this page where I’m practicing with HTML emails:

I’m running into an issue with including icons in the footer. Right now, the code for this table looks like this:

<table align="center" class="socialLinks">
                        <td><a href="https://github.com/actionhamilton" target="_blank">
                          <img class="icon" src="..\images\github-brands.svg" alt="GitHub Icon">
                        <td><a href="https://www.freecodecamp.org/actionhamilton" target="_blank">
                          <img class="icon" src="..\images\free-code-camp-brands.svg" alt="freeCodeCamp Icon">
                        <td><a href="https://www.instagram.com/actionhamilton/" target="_blank">
                          <img class="icon" src="..\images\instagram-brands.svg" alt="Instagram Icon">
                        <td><a href="https://www.linkedin.com/in/troy-vassalotti-468053142/" target="_blank">
                          <img class="icon" src="..\images\linkedin-brands.svg" alt="Linkedin Icon">

However, this doesn’t render on my page. In troubleshooting, I think the issue is with the class=“socialLinks”.

If I remove this class, the icons appear. If I keep the class name the same and comment out the style declarations in the head, they do not appear. However, if I rename the class to remove the word “links” or “link”, the icons appear.

Is there a reason that happens? I have another section with the class “outboundLinks” that works fine. What is it about this specific code that is making the icons table disappear as is?