Infinite loop example in YDKJS

Infinite loop example in YDKJS
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#1

I understand there is an infinite loop inside this code example, but I don’t understand why the end result (I tested) is 11. How does it get 11?

function foo() {
   function bar(a) {
   	           i = 3; 		
               console.log( a + i );
   }

   for (var i=0; i<10; i++) {bar( i * 2 );}
}

foo();
  1. 1st of all a did not even got assigned to any value. How does the compiler continue its operation? Or a=i*2; is the case?
  2. How come i++ does not work? If code below is executed, you will get result like 6,8,10,12,14,16,18
for (var i=3;i<10;i++){
	console.log(i*2);
}
  1. Even let’s say i++ does work, why do we get 11? And get 11 only?

#2

In the first iteration of the for loop, i = 0, so we have bar(0 * 2) or bar(3). Inside bar, i = 3, so we have console.log(a + i) or console.log(0 + 3), which displays 3 to the console.

In the next iteration of the for loop, i = 4 (because i was modified in bar to become 3 and then the i++ in the for loop makes it 4). So we have bar (4*2) or bar(8). Inside bar, i = 3 again, so we have console.log(a+i) or console.log(8 + 3) which displays 11 to the console.

In the next iteration (and all remaining) of the for loop, i = 4 (because i was modified in bar to become 3 and then the i++ in the for loop makes it 4)… 11 is displayed forever because 4 will always be less than 10 (the for loop exit condition).

If the function bar would have declared its own i ( var i = 3), you would have seen the following in the console:

3
5
7
9
11
13
15
17
19
21


#4

I was revising this code snippet just now and I want to ask you this:

Previously I thought the logic behind this code went something like this:
(WRONG ONE)

. assgin 3 to i
. bar(3*2)
. console.log(9)
. etc etc

And now I realised that it was wrong because i=3 was not a declaration, it was an assignment. Js put all the declarations at 1st when it comes to executing the code you write. (a.k.a hoisting)

Am I right?