Replace Loops using Recursion

First Post here:

I would love some feedback on whether my understanding of the solution to this challenge is correct.

``````
function sum(arr, n) {
// Only change code below this line

if (n <= 0) {
return 0;
} else {
} return sum(arr, n - 1) + arr[n -1]

// Only change code above this line
}

console.log(sum([2, 3, 4, 5], 3))
9

``````

I really struggled with this challenge and had to consult the hints and solution but didn’t get why the answer worked until I read a discussion about recursion that mentioned each operation getting added to the call stack but not being evaluated until the base case was reached.

If I understand correctly, this is what happens:

1. the “if statement” evaluates whether the value of n is <= 0, which it is not at first

so

1. the “else statement” runs;

the "sum(arr, n - 1) " part of the statement exists to keep track of which iteration the recursion is on (so it de-increments n by 1 each time the statement runs until n = 0)

the first time through “+ arr[n -1]” grabs the array index at the element n-1 (necessary since arrays start at 0)

on the first run through the operation “+ 4” is added to the top of the call stack then returned to the sum function for the next run through

then the "sum(arr, n - 1) " part of the statement de-increments n (now 3)

control returns to the “if statement” again and check if n is now <= 0, which it is not since currently n = 3

so

control returns to the “else statement” again and the “+ arr[n -1]” grabs the array at index 3-1 and adds the operation “+ 3” to the top of the stack

stack now:

+3,
+4,

this continues until n = 0 and the base case is reached; control calls the “if statement” and the condition is satisfied so 0 is returned and added to the stack which is now

0,
+2 ,
+3,
+4

since the base case is now satisfied the call stack unwinds from top to bottom carrying out the operations in order of the last added to the call stack

0 +2 + 3 + 4 = 9

that’s my understanding of how the example works and it makes sense of the given multiplication example where the base case returns 1 which is necessary since the function multiplies the numbers and multiplying by 1 would have to be the first operation since multiplying anything by 0 produces 0

any feedback would be appreciated.

that would be a hard -no-

sum(arr, n-1) is a call to the function sum
It is a call that gives it the exact same array as the first argument and the value of n-1 as the second argument.

Just understand that the call to sum actually calls sum and that the remainder of that line of code doesn’t execute until the call to sum is complete.
And that means in some cases having to wait for the first call to sum to call another sum who then calls another sum who in turn calls yet another sum etc etc until the base case is reached.
And only then, does each call return a value can we evaluate the rest of the line to the right-hand-side of the call to sum.

ps. you can split that call to sum and the remainder of the line there into 2 lines and log what happens in between so you can see the calls and the returns being made and when the summing part happens

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