What is exactly meant by descendant Selectors?

What does it actually mean by descendant selectors? Does it mean selectors which come below a particular selector? In the following piece of code each selector like penguin, right-cheek, left-cheek etc is different it seems.

  **Your code so far**

<style>
:root {
  /* Only change code below this line */

  /* Only change code above this line */
}

body {
  background: var(--penguin-belly, #c6faf1);
}

.penguin {
  --penguin-skin: gray;
  --penguin-beak: orange;
  position: relative;
  margin: auto;
  display: block;
  margin-top: 5%;
  width: 300px;
  height: 300px;
}

.right-cheek {
  top: 15%;
  left: 35%;
  background: var(--penguin-belly, white);
  width: 60%;
  height: 70%;
  border-radius: 70% 70% 60% 60%;
}

.left-cheek {
  top: 15%;
  left: 5%;
  background: var(--penguin-belly, white);
  width: 60%;
  height: 70%;
  border-radius: 70% 70% 60% 60%;
}

.belly {
  top: 60%;
  left: 2.5%;
  background: var(--penguin-belly, white);
  width: 95%;
  height: 100%;
  border-radius: 120% 120% 100% 100%;
}

.penguin-top {
  top: 10%;
  left: 25%;
  background: var(--penguin-skin, gray);
  width: 50%;
  height: 45%;
  border-radius: 70% 70% 60% 60%;
}

.penguin-bottom {
  top: 40%;
  left: 23.5%;
  background: var(--penguin-skin, gray);
  width: 53%;
  height: 45%;
  border-radius: 70% 70% 100% 100%;
}

.right-hand {
  top: 0%;
  left: -5%;
  background: var(--penguin-skin, gray);
  width: 30%;
  height: 60%;
  border-radius: 30% 30% 120% 30%;
  transform: rotate(45deg);
  z-index: -1;
}

.left-hand {
  top: 0%;
  left: 75%;
  background: var(--penguin-skin, gray);
  width: 30%;
  height: 60%;
  border-radius: 30% 30% 30% 120%;
  transform: rotate(-45deg);
  z-index: -1;
}

.right-feet {
  top: 85%;
  left: 60%;
  background: var(--penguin-beak, orange);
  width: 15%;
  height: 30%;
  border-radius: 50% 50% 50% 50%;
  transform: rotate(-80deg);
  z-index: -2222;
}

.left-feet {
  top: 85%;
  left: 25%;
  background: var(--penguin-beak, orange);
  width: 15%;
  height: 30%;
  border-radius: 50% 50% 50% 50%;
  transform: rotate(80deg);
  z-index: -2222;
}

.right-eye {
  top: 45%;
  left: 60%;
  background: black;
  width: 15%;
  height: 17%;
  border-radius: 50%;
}

.left-eye {
  top: 45%;
  left: 25%;
  background: black;
  width: 15%;
  height: 17%;
  border-radius: 50%;
}

.sparkle {
  top: 25%;
  left: 15%;
  background: white;
  width: 35%;
  height: 35%;
  border-radius: 50%;
}

.blush-right {
  top: 65%;
  left: 15%;
  background: pink;
  width: 15%;
  height: 10%;
  border-radius: 50%;
}

.blush-left {
  top: 65%;
  left: 70%;
  background: pink;
  width: 15%;
  height: 10%;
  border-radius: 50%;
}

.beak-top {
  top: 60%;
  left: 40%;
  background: var(--penguin-beak, orange);
  width: 20%;
  height: 10%;
  border-radius: 50%;
}

.beak-bottom {
  top: 65%;
  left: 42%;
  background: var(--penguin-beak, orange);
  width: 16%;
  height: 10%;
  border-radius: 50%;
}

.penguin * {
  position: absolute;
}
</style>
<div class="penguin">
<div class="penguin-bottom">
  <div class="right-hand"></div>
  <div class="left-hand"></div>
  <div class="right-feet"></div>
  <div class="left-feet"></div>
</div>
<div class="penguin-top">
  <div class="right-cheek"></div>
  <div class="left-cheek"></div>
  <div class="belly"></div>
  <div class="right-eye">
    <div class="sparkle"></div>
  </div>
  <div class="left-eye">
    <div class="sparkle"></div>
  </div>
  <div class="blush-right"></div>
  <div class="blush-left"></div>
  <div class="beak-top"></div>
  <div class="beak-bottom"></div>
</div>
</div>
  **Your browser information:**

User Agent is: Mozilla/5.0 (Windows NT 10.0; Win64; x64) AppleWebKit/537.36 (KHTML, like Gecko) Chrome/88.0.4324.182 Safari/537.36.

Challenge: Inherit CSS Variables

Link to the challenge:

Example:

<body>
   <main>
      <div id="cheese">
      </div>
   </main>
</body>

#cheese div is a descendant of <main>, which means the CSS properties of <main> are automatically applied to, or inherited by #cheese, unless that property doesn’t work on the descendant.

The challenge you linked explains that just like CSS properties, CSS variables are also inherited by descendants.

1 Like

Thanks anon. But I have a ques, var '–penguin-belly ’ has been declared inside ‘.penguin’ class. But it is used inside " .right-cheek " class and various other classes too while they don’t seem to be descended from the ‘.penguin’ class. So, how does a var declared inside ‘.penguin’ class works inside another class?

If you check the HTML code below all the CSS, you can see that the .penguin class has the following children: .penguin-bottom and .penguin-top. You can see that .right-cheek is in turn a child of .penguin-top. This makes .right-cheek a grandchild, or descendant, of .penguin.

<div class="penguin">
  <div class="penguin-bottom">
     ...
  </div>
  <div class="penguin-top">
    <div class="right-cheek"></div>
       ...
  </div>
</div>
1 Like