Except in specialized applications, basically you need basic math. Most of us learned enough math by the time we were 12 for web development - basic math, basic algebra, basic geometry.
When you get into algorithms, you will need a little bit more, but not much. Mostly it’s number theory stuff: prime numbers, factorials, Fibonacci sequences, a basic understanding of exponents and logarithms, base systems besides 10, etc. These will give you a deeper understanding of algorithms and will help you solve more of them, giving you street cred. There is a lot more to programming than algorithms, but they are important and are often a way to weed out prospective employees so it’s good to be good at them.
If you work in some specialized fields of software, you may need something more. If you’re doing 3D graphics you’ll need a bunch of trig. If you’re doing signal analysis you might need things like fast Fourier transforms. In some fields you may need things like basic calculus or statistics or linear algebra.
But if you enjoy algorithms you probably have enough basic math and can pick up most of what else you need pretty easily. Seriously - people worry much too much about this.