I think I'm understanding your questions correctly for the most part. Below I've numbered my answers to match your questions. I'm not very knowledgable about code, but I think I've found some solutions for you.
Just add an element to in place of your text within the html. BUT BE PREPARED, because this is opening up a can of worms in scaling and dimensions...
Change the height of your #home section.
I used height: auto; and I think it achieved what you want. Just remember that min-height will keep your element from becoming smaller than your specifications while allowing no parameters for growth. You entered 100vh (viewport height), that means your #home section was taking 100% of the available viewing space on any given device. By setting the height to auto you set the height to accommodate what is inside the element and no more.
I think that for the second part of the question you're referring to the "This is" not lining up with the slider? Just change your em from 1.5 to 1.8.
Not sure what you mean, perhaps you've already solved this..
Here's a great link to using dropbox to hold your images. https://ryanmo.co/2013/11/03/dropboxsharedlinks/
Hope this all helps, good luck!