I wouldn’t worry about specific widths. Narrow your browser as far as it will go (my Firefox goes to 450px). Use that as your starting point and style the page so everything looks good at this very narrow width. Once you have it looking good then slowly widen your browser until you feel you have enough room for the first layout change ( two months per row). Set your first break point there (using min-width) and then style for that width. After you are done with that, slowly widen the browser even more until you feel you have enough room for the final layout change (three months per row). Set your second break point there and style. Using this approach you are letting the content determine where the break points are.
Now the whole key to making this work with various widths and font sizes is to use em units for the break point instead of px. You can ballpark the em width by dividing the browser width (in pixels) for the break point by the default font size for your page (also in px). For example, if the default font size is 16px and you decide the first break point should be at 600px then 600/16 = 37.5 and you would set the break point to min-width: 37.5em. You can then test and adjust the em value until you get it right where you want it.
Using em units makes your page responsive to not only browser width changes but also changes in text size. Using the 600px example, let’s say you have your browser just slightly wider than 600px so that two months are showing per row. At a default font size (16px) this means that the width is just over 37.5em. But if you start increasing the text size (leaving the browser width the same) then the width in em’s starts to decrease and will fall under 37.5em which will trigger the page back to your narrow version (one month per row).
Now back to your original question about minimum device widths. First, instead of thinking of this in pixels you need to think of it in em’s. Thinking of the width in em’s basically translates to “how many characters of text can we fit horizontally on the page at the current text size?” Each device will have it’s own answer for that depending on what its device size and device pixel ratio is. But you don’t have to worry about all of that because you can use Chrome’s Responsive Design Mode in dev tools to narrow your page down as far as you want for testing. Choose ‘Responsive’ for the mobile device and narrow away. I think you’ll find that for the most part just designing the narrow view based on how far your browser can narrow is going to work just fine.
When you get down to very tiny devices there is always going to be a limit as to how far you can narrow the page before the dreaded horizontal scroll bar shows up. For example, I’m assuming you want to keep the months formatted as they are now (seven columns, one for each day of the week). So at some point that is going to break as you narrow closer to 0, especially if you are viewing with a bigger font size. At that point the user will just have to accept a horizontal scroll bar. But these situations are not that common. Just testing your page as it is now I can narrow down to under 200px and still have it looking nice.