Mathematics in DS and ML

Good afternoon everyone!

I am approaching my next task at the university (Mathematics) and I would really appreciate your help.

I am considering branches/areas of maths that are being most commonly used by data scientists. I am not data scientist myself (yet?) but I am aware that there are many different opinions either proper mathematical background is considered necessary at all. Pardon my rather crude selection when it comes to mathematical areas, but that is the ‘set’ of skills that is being mentioned most often. Options are, as follows:

  • FUNCTIONS, VARIABLES, EQUATIONS AND GRAPHS

  • STATISTICS

  • LINEAR ALGEBRA

  • CALCULUS

  • DISCREET MATH

  • OPTIMISATION AND OPERATIONS/OPERATIONAL RESEARCH

  • TRIGONOMETRY

If you’ve got spare second – I would really appreciate your help. Of course, any comments are more than welcome. What do you, personally find either most useful or fundamental?

Thanks in advance!